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Datos acerca de la vigilancia mundial (2013 a la fecha)


Las publicaciones en la prensa de los últimos días en los medios internacionales han revelado detalles acerca de las operaciones de ]

In summary, these media reports have shed light on the implications of several ]

The disclosure provided impetus for the creation of ]

On June 14, 2013, United States ]

The extent to which the media reports have responsibly informed the public is disputed. In January 2014 U.S. President ]


Full site sign in sign up Backgroundeditar código


The Washington Post's coverage of Snowden's disclosures, summarized the leaks as follows:

"Taken together, the revelations have brought to light a attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. Secret legal authorities empowered the NSA to sweep in the telephone, Internet and location records of whole populations."

The disclosure revealed specific details of the NSA's close cooperation with U.S. federal agencies such as the ]

]


Full site sign in sign up Global surveillanceeditar código

Global surveillance programs
Program International contributors and/or partners Commercial partners
PRISM
USA XKeyscore
GBR Tempora
Muscular
Project 6
Stateroom
Lustre

Last updated: December 2013


Full site sign in sign up Disclosureseditar código

The exact size of Snowden's disclosure is unknown, but the following estimates have been put up by various government officials:

  • At least 15,000 ]
  • At least 58,000 British intelligence files, according to British officials[68]
  • About 1.7 million U.S. intelligence files, according to U.S. officials[29]

As a former contractor of the NSA, Snowden was granted access to U.S. government documents along with ]

According to his lawyer, Snowden has pledged not to release any documents while in The Washington Post.


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In the 1970s, NSA analyst ] who were followed by:

  • NSA employees ]
  • GCHQ employee ]
  • British Cabinet Minister ]
  • NSA employee ]
  • Journalist Leslie Cauley of USA Today, who revealed in 2006 that the NSA is keeping a massive database of Americans' phone calls[82]
  • ]
  • Activists ]
  • Journalist ]

In the aftermath of Snowden's revelations, ]


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]

In April 2012, NSA contractor Edward Snowden began downloading documents.[87] That year, Snowden had made his first contact with journalist Glenn Greenwald of The Guardian and he contacted documentary filmmaker Laura Poitras in January 2013.[88] [89]

In May 2013, Snowden went on temporary leave from his position at the NSA, citing the pretext of receiving treatment for his ] Greenwald, Poitras and the Guardian's defence and intelligence correspondent Ewen MacAskill flew to Hong Kong to meet Snowden.

Juneeditar código

After the U.S.-based editor of ]

On June 6, 2013, the second media disclosure, the revelation of the ]

]

During the ]

From 2001 to 2011, the NSA collected vast amounts of ]

According to the ]

Several weeks later, it was revealed that the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) of Germany transfers massive amounts of metadata records to the NSA.[115]

On June 11, 2013, Kenya, and the United States are colored orange or yellow

Julyeditar código

According to the Brazilian newspaper allied facilities contributing to XKeyscore are four installations in Australia and one in New Zealand:

  • ]
  • The ]
  • The ]
  • ]
  • ]

O Globo released an NSA document titled "Primary FORNSAT Collection Operations", which revealed the specific locations and codenames of the FORNSAT intercept stations in 2002.[120]

According to Edward Snowden, the NSA has established secret intelligence partnerships with many ]

In an interview published by ]

In a document dated January 2013, the NSA acknowledged the efforts of the BND to undermine privacy laws:

"The BND has been working to influence the German government to relax interpretation of the privacy laws to provide greater opportunities of intelligence sharing[125]

According to an NSA document dated April 2013, Germany has now become the NSA's "most prolific partner".[125] Under a section of a separate document leaked by Snowden titled "Success Stories", the NSA acknowledged the efforts of the German government to expand the BND's international data sharing with partners:

"The German government modifies its interpretation of the ]

In addition, the German government was well aware of the PRISM surveillance program long before Edward Snowden made details public. According to Angela Merkel's spokesman ]

The Guardian revealed further details of the NSA's XKeyscore tool, which allows government analysts to search through vast databases containing emails, online chats and the browsing histories of millions of individuals without prior authorization.[127] [128] [129] Microsoft "developed a surveillance capability to deal" with the interception of encrypted chats on Outlook.com, within five months after the service went into testing. NSA had access to Outlook.com emails because “Prism collects this data prior to encryption.”[51]

In addition, Microsoft worked with the FBI to enable the NSA to gain access to its cloud storage service ]

Even if there is no reason to suspect U.S. citizens of wrongdoing, the CIA's National Counterterrorism Center is allowed to examine federal government files for possible criminal behavior. Previously the NTC was barred to do so, unless a person was a terror suspect or related to an investigation.[130]

Snowden also confirmed that Stuxnet was cooperatively developed by the United States and Israel.[131] In a report unrelated to Edward Snowden, the French newspaper Le Monde revealed thet France's DGSE was also undertaking mass surveillance, which it described as "illegal and outside any serious control".[132] [133]

On July 10, 2013, Special Source Operations, in which NSA agents are tasked with the collection of communications from the following two sources:
1. Upstream – Under the first type of collection, data en route to its final destination would be intercepted via Apple Inc.

Augusteditar código

Documents leaked by Edward Snowden that were seen by fiber-optic communications. The telecom operators are:

Each of them were assigned a particular area of the international ]

Telecommunication companies who participated were "forced" to do so and had "no choice in the matter".[135] Some of the companies were subsequently paid by GCHQ for their participation in the infiltration of the cables.[135] According to the SZ the GCHQ has access to the majority of internet and telephone communications flowing throughout Europe, can listen to phone calls, read emails and text messages, see which websites internet users from all around the world are visiting. It can also retain and analyse nearly the entire European internet traffic.[135]

The GCHQ is collecting all data transmitted to and from the United Kingdom and Northern Europe via the undersea fibre optic telecommunications cable ]

The U.S. runs a top-secret surveillance program known as the ]

The NSA is not just intercepting the communications of Americans who are in direct contact with foreigners targeted overseas, but also searching the contents of vast amounts of e-mail and text communications into and out of the country by Americans who mention information about foreigners under surveillance.[139] It also spied on the Al Jazeera and gained access to its internal communications systems.[140]

The NSA has built a surveillance network that has the capacity to reach roughly 75% of all U.S. Internet traffic.[141] [142] [143] U.S. Law-enforcement agencies use tools used by computer hackers to gather information on suspects.[144] [145] An internal NSA audit from May 2012 identified 2776 incidents i.e. violations of the rules or court orders for surveillance of Americans and foreign targets in the U.S. in the period from April 2011 through March 2012, while U.S. officials stressed that any mistakes are not intentional.[146] [147] [148] [149] [150] [151] [152]

The FISA Court that is supposed to provide critical oversight of the U.S. government's vast spying programs has limited ability to do and it must trust the government to report when it improperly spies on Americans.]

A letter drafted by the Obama administration specifically to inform Congress of the government's mass collection of Americans’ telephone communications data was withheld from lawmakers by leaders of the House Intelligence Committee in the months before a key vote affecting the future of the program.[160] [161]

The NSA paid GCHQ over £100 Million between 2009 and 2012, in exchange for these funds GCHQ "must pull its weight and be seen to pull its weight." Documents referenced in the article explain that the weaker British laws regarding spying are "a selling point" for the NSA. GCHQ is also developing the technology to "exploit any mobile phone at any time."[162] The NSA has under a legal authority a secret backdoor into its databases gathered from large Internet companies enabling it to search for U.S. citizens' email and phone calls without a warrant.[163] [164]

The Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board urged the U.S. intelligence chiefs to draft stronger US surveillance guidelines on domestic spying after finding that several of those guidelines have not been updated up to 30 years.[165] [166] U.S. intelligence analysts have deliberately broken rules designed to prevent them from spying on Americans by choosing to ignore so-called "minimisation procedures" aimed at protecting privacy[167] [168] and used the NSA's agency’s enormous eavesdropping power to spy on love interests.[169]

After the U.S. ]

"]

In 2013, it was further revealed that the NSA had made a £17.2  million financial contribution to the project, which is capable of vacuuming signals from up to 200 fibre-optic cables at all physical points of entry into Great Britain.[172]

As part of disclosures about the Five Eyes" of the United States, Australia, Canada, Great Britain, and New Zealand.

Septembereditar código

The Guardian and the ]

The Obama Administration secretly won permission from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court in 2011 to reverse restrictions on the National Security Agency’s use of intercepted phone calls and e-mails, permitting the agency to search deliberately for Americans’ communications in its massive databases. The searches take place under a surveillance program Congress authorized in 2008 under Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. Under that law, the target must be a foreigner “reasonably believed” to be outside the United States, and the court must approve the targeting procedures in an order good for one year. But a warrant for each target would thus no longer be required. That means that communications with Americans could be picked up without a court first determining that there is probable cause that the people they were talking to were terrorists, spies or “foreign powers.” The FISC extended the length of time that the NSA is allowed to retain intercepted U.S. communications from five years to six years with an extension possible for foreign intelligence or counterintelligence purposes. Both measures were done without public debate or any specific authority from Congress.[181]

A special branch of the NSA called "Follow the Money" (FTM) monitors international payments, banking and credit card transactions and later stores the collected data in the NSA's own financial databank "Tracfin".]

In the United States, the NSA uses the analysis of phone call and e-mail logs of American citizens to create sophisticated graphs of their social connections that can identify their associates, their locations at certain times, their traveling companions and other personal information.[185] The NSA routinely shares raw intelligence data with Israel without first sifting it to remove information about U.S. citizens.[7] [186]

In an effort codenamed GENIE, computer specialists can control foreign computer networks using "covert implants,” a form of remotely transmitted malware on tens of thousands of devices annually.]

An internal NSA report from 2010 stated that the spread of the smartphone has been occurring "extremely rapidly"—developments that "certainly complicate traditional target analysis."]

Under the heading "iPhone capability", the document notes that there are smaller NSA programs, known as "scripts", that can perform surveillance on 38 different features of the ]

Octobereditar código

On October 4, 2013, ]

The ]

The Australian Federal Government knew about the PRISM surveillance program months before Edward Snowden made details public.[204] [205]

The NSA monitored the public email account of former Mexican president Felipe Calderón (thus gaining access to the communications of high-ranking cabinet members), the E-Mails of several high-ranking members of Mexico's security forces and text and the mobile phone communication of current Mexican president Enrique Peña Nieto.[206] [207] The NSA tries to gather cellular and landline phone numbers—often obtained from American diplomats—for as many foreign officials as possible. The contents of the phone calls are stored in computer databases that can regularly be searched using keywords.[208] [209]

The NSA has been monitoring telephone conversations of 35 world leaders.[210] The U.S. government's first public acknowledgment that it tapped the phones of world leaders was reported on October 28, 2013 by the Wall Street Journal after an internal U.S. government review turned up NSA monitoring of some 35 world leaders.[211] The GCHQ has tried to keep its mass surveillance program a secret because it feared a "damaging public debate" on the scale of its activities which could lead to legal challenges against them.[212]

The Guardian revealed that the NSA had been monitoring telephone conversations of 35 world leaders after being given the numbers by an official in another U.S. government department. A confidential memo revealed that the NSA encouraged senior officials in such Departments as the ]

Under Britain's ]

The mobile phone of German Chancellor Angela Merkel might have been tapped by U.S. intelligence.[219] [220] [221] [222] [223] [224] [225] According to the Spiegel this monitoring goes back to 2002[226] [227] [228] and ended in the summer of 2013,[211] while the New York Times reported that Germany has evidence that the NSA's surveillance of Merkel began during George W. Bush's tenure.[229] After learning from Der Spiegel magazine that the NSA has been listening in to her personal mobile phone, Merkel compared the snooping practices of the NSA with those of the Stasi.[230]

On October 31, 2013, ]

A highly sensitive signals intelligence collection program known as ]

Under the Stateroom surveillance programme, Australia operates clandestine surveillance facilities to intercept phone calls and data across much of Asia.[233] [235]

In France, the NSA targeted people belonging to the worlds of business, politics or French state administration. The NSA monitored and recorded the content of telephone communications and the history of the connections of each target i.e. the metadata.]

The French newspaper Le Monde also disclosed new PRISM and Upstream slides (See Page 4, 7 and 8) coming from the "PRISM/US-984XN Overview" presentation.[240]

In Spain, the NSA intercepted the telephone conversations, text messages and emails of millions of Spaniards, and spied on members of the Spanish government.[241] Between December 10, 2012 and January 8, 2013, the NSA collected metadata on 60 million telephone calls in Spain.[242]

According to documents leaked by Snowden, the surveillance of Spanish citizens was jointly conducted by the NSA and the intelligence agencies of Spain.[243] [244]

On October 4, 2013, terrorists, and other targets

Novembereditar código

The ]

The same story revealed an operation code-named Ironavenger, in which the NSA intercepted e-mails sent between a country allied with the United States and the government of "an adversary". The ally was conducting a ]

According to the British newspaper ]

Operating under the code-name "Quantum Insert", the GCHQ set up a fake website masquerading as ]

For more than three years the GCHQ has been using an automated monitoring system code-named "Royal Concierge" to infiltrate the ]

In November 2013, the ]

Other high-ranking Indonesian politicians targeted by the DSD include:

  • ] (Vice President)
  • ] (Former Vice President)
  • ] (Ambassador to the United States)
  • ] (Government spokesperson)
  • ] (State Secretary)
  • World Bank)
  • ] (Former Commander-in-Chief of the military)
  • ] (Senior government advisor)

Carrying the title "]

Under a secret deal approved by British intelligence officials, the NSA has been storing and analyzing the internet and email records of UK citizens since 2007. The NSA also proposed in 2005 a procedure for spying on the citizens of the UK and other ]

Towards the end of November, signals intelligence, but there are grounds for optimism because, in the NSA's own words:

"The culture of compliance, which has allowed the American people to entrust NSA with extraordinary authorities, will not be compromised in the face of so many demands, even as we aggressively pursue legal authorities..."[252]

The report, titled "]

On November 23, 2013, the Dutch newspaper ]

On November 23, 2013, the Dutch newspaper Philippines

Decembereditar código

According to the classified documents leaked by Snowden, the ]

The Washington Post revealed that the NSA has been tracking the locations of mobile phones from all over the world by tapping into the cables that connect mobile networks globally and that serve U.S. cellphones as well as foreign ones. In the process of doing so, the NSA collects more than five billion records of phone locations on a daily basis. This enables NSA analysts to map cellphone owners’ relationships by correlating their patterns of movement over time with thousands or millions of other phone users who cross their paths.[256] [257] [258] [259] [260] [261] [262] [263]

The Washington Post also reported that the NSA makes use of location data and advertising tracking files generated through normal internet browsing i.e. tools that enable Internet advertisers to track consumers from Google and others to get information on potential targets, to pinpoint targets for government hacking and to bolster surveillance.[264] [265] [266]

The NORUS Agreement:

  • 1952 - Informal starting year of cooperation between the NIS and the NSA[268]
  • 1954 - Formalization of the agreement[268]
  • 1963 - Extension of the agreement for coverage of ]
  • 1970 - Extension of the agreement for coverage of ]
  • 1994 - Extension of the agreement for coverage of ]

The NSA considers the NIS to be one of its most reliable partners. Both agencies also cooperate to crack the encryption systems of mutual targets. According to the NSA, Norway has made no objections to its requests from the NIS.[268]

On 5 December, ]

As a result of Snowden's disclosures, the notion of ] Specific details of Sweden's cooperation with members of the UKUSA Agreement include:

  • The FRA has been granted access to XKeyscore, an analytical database of the NSA.[274]
  • Sweden updated the NSA on changes in ]
  • Since January 2013, a counterterrorism analyst of the NSA has been stationed in the Swedish capital of Stockholm[55]
  • Several years before the ]

In order to identify targets for government hacking and surveillance, both the GCHQ and the NSA have used advertising ]

During the ]

In Italy the Italian embassy in Washington, D.C. has been targeted by two spy operations of the NSA:

  • Under the codename "Bruneau", which refers to mission "Lifesaver", the NSA sucks out all the information stored in the embassy's computers and creates electronic images of ]
  • Under the codename "Hemlock", which refers to mission "Highlands", the NSA gains access to the embassy's communications through physical "implants".[277]

Due to concerns that terrorist or criminal networks may be secretly communicating via computer games, the NSA, the GCHQ, the CIA, and the FBI have been conducting surveillance and scooping up data from the networks of many online games, including ]

The NSA has cracked the most commonly used cellphone encryption technology, ]

US district court judge for the District of Columbia, Richard Leon, ]

However federal judge William H. Pauley III in New York City ]

In recent years, American and British intelligence agencies conducted surveillance on more than 1,100 targets, including the office of an Israeli prime minister, heads of international aid organizations, foreign energy companies and a European Union official involved in antitrust battles with American technology businesses.[298]

A USB flash drives secretly fitted with radio transmitters to broadcast stolen data over the airwaves, and fake base stations intended to intercept mobile phone signals, as well as many other secret devices and software implants listed here:

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]

In a separate disclosure unrelated to Snowden, the French ]

On 4 December 2013, ]

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Januaryeditar código

The NSA is working to build a powerful ]

According to the New York Times the NSA is monitoring approximately 100.000 computers worldwide with spy software named Quantum. Quantum enables the NSA to conduct surveillance on those computers on the one hand and can also create a digital highway for launching cyberattacks on the other hand. Among the targets are the Chinese and Russian military, but also trade institutions within the European Union. The NYT also reported that the NSA can access and alter computers which are not connected with the internet by a secret technology in use by the NSA since 2008. The prerequisite is the physically insertion of the radio frequency hardware by a spy, a manufacturer or an unwitting user. The technology relies on a covert channel of radio waves that can be transmitted from tiny circuit boards and USB cards inserted surreptitiously into the computers. In some cases, they are sent to a briefcase-size relay station that intelligence agencies can set up miles away from the target. The technology can also transmit malware back to the infected computer.[46]

]

Each day, the database receives and stores the following amounts of data:

  • ]
  • Over 110,000 names, gathered from electronic ]
  • Over 800,000 ]
  • Details of 1.6 million border crossings based on the interception of network roaming alerts[316]
  • Over 5 million ]
  • About 200 million text messages from around the world[317]

The database is supplemented with an analytical tool known as the Prefer program, which processes SMS messages to extract other types of information including contacts from ]

According to a joint diclosure by the New York Times, the Guardian, and ]

A GCHQ document dated August 2012 provided details of the ]

During the ]

The ]

On 27 January 2014, Five Eyes (FVEY) partners in Australia, Britain, Canada, and New Zealand

Februaryeditar código

According to research by ]

The GCHQ launched a ]

The NSA Section 215 bulk telephony metadata program which seeks to stockpile records on all calls made in the U.S. is collecting less than 30 percent of all Americans’ call records because of an inability to keep pace with the explosion in cellphone use according to the Washington Post.. The controversial program permits the NSA after a warrant granted by the secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillane Court to record numbers, length and location of every call from the participating carriers in.[340] [341]


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United States
On June 7, 2013, President terrorist attacks

Domestically, President Barack Obama reassured the public that there is "no spying on Americans",[342] [343] and White House Press Secretary Jay Carney asserted that the surveillance programs revealed by Snowden have been authorized by Congress.[344]

On the international front, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder reassured foreigners that "we cannot target even foreign persons overseas without a valid foreign intelligence purpose."[345]

United Kingdom

Prime Minister ]

Foreign Secretary ]

Australia

Prime Minister Tony Abbott reasurred the public that "every Australian governmental agency, every Australian official at home and abroad, operates in accordance with the law".[350] Abbott criticized the Australian Broadcasting Corporation for being unpatriotic due to its reporting on the documents provided by Snowden, whom Abbott described as a "traitor".[351] [352]

Foreign Minister ]

Germany

In July 2013, Chancellor ]

Interior Minister Hans-Peter Friedrich reasurred the public that "the Americans take our data privacy concerns seriously."[359] Testifying before the German Parliament, Friedrich defended the NSA's surveillance, and cited five terrorist plots on German soil that were prevented because of the NSA.[360]

Sweden

Foreign Minister ]


Full site sign in sign up Review of intelligence agencieseditar código

Bandera de Alemania

In July 2013, the German government announced an extensive review of Germany's intelligence services.[362] [363]

Bandera de los Estados Unidos

In August 2013, the U.S. government announced an extensive review of U.S. intelligence services.[364] [365]

Bandera del Reino Unido

In October 2013, the British government announced an extensive review of British intelligence services.[366]

Bandera de Canadá

In December 2013, the Canadian government announced an extensive review of Canada's intelligence services.[367]


Full site sign in sign up Criticismeditar código

In January 2014 U.S. President ]

]

Russian journalist ]


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According to ]


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Year Disclosure Size Main source(s) Major publisher(s)
2013 Global surveillance disclosure 1.7 million documents[373] Edward Snowden Sveriges Television
2010 U.S. Army and U.S. State Department documents 734,885 files Chelsea (then known as Bradley) Manning The Guardian, The New York Times. Der Spiegel, Le Monde, El País, WikiLeaks

The material consisted of:

  • 1 Collateral Murder video[374] +
  • 91,000 Afghan War diary[375] +
  • 391,832 Iraq War logs[376] +
  • 251,287 Secret US Embassy Cables[377] +
  • 765 Gitmo DABs[378] = 734,885 total.
1971 Pentagon Papers 4,100 pages Daniel Ellsberg The New York Times

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  1. Gellman, Barton (24 de diciembre de 2013). «Edward Snowden, after months of NSA revelations, says his mission’s accomplished» (en inglés). The Washington Post. Consultado el 25 de diciembre de 2013.
  2. Greenwald, Glenn. «NSA collecting phone records of millions of Verizon customers daily» (en inglés). The Guardian. Consultado el 16 de agosto de 2013.
  3. Greenwald, Glenn. «Pentagon Says Snowden Took Most U.S. Secrets Ever: Rogers» (en inglés). Bloomberg. Consultado el 9 de enero de 2014.
  4. Gellman, Barton. «NSA Primary Sources» (en inglés). Electronic Frontier Foundation. Consultado el 14 de diciembre de 2013.
  5. a b c d e f Hubert Gude, Laura Poitras and Marcel Rosenbach (5 de agosto de 2013). «German intelligence Sends Massive Amounts of Data to the NSA». Der Spiegel. Consultado el 14 de diciembre de 2013.
  6. Gunnar Rensfeldt. «NSA "asking for" specific exchanges from FRA - Secret treaty since 1954». Sveriges Television. Consultado el 14 de diciembre de 2013.
  7. a b c Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras and Ewen MacAskill. «NSA shares raw intelligence including Americans' data with Israel», The Guardian, 11 de septiembre de 2013. Consultado el 14 de septiembre de 2013.
  8. Tim Leslie and Mark Corcoran. «Explained: Australia's involvement with the NSA, the US spy agency at heart of global scandal». Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Consultado el 18 de diciembre de 2013.
  9. Julian Borger. «GCHQ and European spy agencies worked together on mass surveillance». The Guardian. Consultado el 18 de diciembre de 2013.
  10. a b Greg Weston, Glenn Greenwald, Ryan Gallagher. «Snowden document shows Canada set up spy posts for NSA». Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Consultado el 13 de diciembre de 2013.
  11. The Copenhagen Post. Consultado el 18 de diciembre de 2013.
  12. a b Jacques Follorou. «La France, précieux partenaire de l'espionnage de la NSA» (en francés). Le Monde. Consultado el 18 de diciembre de 2013.
  13. Christian Fuchs, John Goetz und Frederik Obermaier. «Verfassungsschutz beliefert NSA» (en alemán). Süddeutsche Zeitung. Consultado el 18 de diciembre de 2013.
  14. Kjetil Malkenes Hovland. «Norway Monitored Phone Traffic and Shared Data With NSA». The Wall Street Journal. Consultado el 18 de diciembre de 2013.
  15. «USA must not persecute whistleblower Edward Snowden». Amnesty International. Consultado el 16 de agosto de 2013.
  16. «US: Statement on Protection of Whistleblowers in Security Sector». Human Rights Watch. Consultado el 16 de agosto de 2013.
  17. Transparency International Germany. «Transparency International Germany: Whistleblower Prize 2013 for Edward Snowden». Transparency International. Consultado el 16 de agosto de 2013.
  18. «US needs to protect whistleblowers and journalists». Index on Censorship. Consultado el 16 de agosto de 2013.
  19. U.S. vs. Edward J. Snowden criminal complaint. The Washington Post.
  20. «Leaker Files for Asylum to Remain in Russia», The New York Times, 16 de julio de 2013. Consultado el 16 de diciembre de 2013.
  21. «Snowden Asylum Hits U.S.-Russia Relations», The Wall Street Journal, 1 de agosto de 2013. Consultado el 16 de diciembre de 2013.
  22. «.S. 'Extremely Disappointed' At Russia's Asylum For Snowden», NPR, 1 de agosto de 2013. Consultado el 16 de diciembre de 2013.
  23. Henderson. «Obama To Leno: 'There Is No Spying On Americans'». NPR. Consultado el 16 de agosto de 2013.
  24. Francis Elliott. «Cameron hints at action to stop security leaks». The Times. Consultado el 13 de noviembre de 2013.
  25. RAPHAEL SATTER. «UK Pursuing Criminal Investigation Into NSA Leaks». ABC News. Consultado el 13 de noviembre de 2013.
  26. «Only 1% of Snowden files published - Guardian editor», BBC, 3 de diciembre de 2013. Consultado el 29 de diciembre de 2013.
  27. a b Transcript Of President Obama's Speech On NSA Reforms NPR 17 January 2014
  28. ↑ The New Republic
  29. ↑ Bloomberg News. Consultado el 1 de febrero de 2014.
  30. a b «Snowden leaks 'worst ever loss to British intelligence'». BBC (11 de octubre de 2013). Consultado el 4 de febrero de 2014.
  31. The Washington Post. Consultado el 25 de diciembre de 2013. «Taken together, the revelations have brought to light a global surveillance system that cast off many of its historical restraints after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. Secret legal authorities empowered the NSA to sweep in the telephone, Internet and location records of whole populations.».
  32. a b «Microsoft helped NSA, FBI access user info: Guardian». Reuters (Jul 11, 2013). Consultado el 25 de diciembre de 2013.
  33. Andy Greenberg. «NSA's Verizon Spying Order Specifically Targeted Americans, Not Foreigners», 'Forbes', 6/05/2013. Consultado el 25 de diciembre de 2013. «In a top secret order obtained by the Guardian newspaper and published Wednesday evening, the FBI on the NSA’s behalf demanded that Verizon turn over all metadata for phone records originating in the United States for the three months beginning in late April and ending on the 19th of July.»
  34. «Report: NSA and CIA collaborate on drone strikes», Associated Press, Oct 17, 2013. Consultado el 25 de diciembre de 2013.
  35. Doug Gross. «Leak: Government spies snooped in 'Warcraft,' other games», CNN, 10 de diciembre de 2013. Consultado el 25 de diciembre de 2013.
  36. Craig Timberg and Barton Gellman. «NSA paying U.S. companies for access to communications networks». The Washington Post. Consultado el 25 de diciembre de 2013.
  37. Michael Winter. «NSA reimbursed tech firms millions for data», 'USA Today', 23 de agosto de 2013. Consultado el 25 de diciembre de 2013.
  38. Brian Fung. «The NSA paid Silicon Valley millions to spy on taxpayers». The Washington Post. Consultado el 25 de diciembre de 2013.
  39. Rob Williams (2 de agosto de 2013). «Americans pay GCHQ £100m to spy for them, leaked NSA papers from Edward Snowden claim». The Independent. Consultado el 25 de diciembre de 2013.
  40. Kiran Stacey. «US paid GCHQ £100m for UK intelligence, say leaked documents», 'Financial Times', 1 de agosto de 2013. Consultado el 25 de diciembre de 2013.
  41. «Espionnage: les services secrets français précieux partenaires de la NSA américaine» (en francés). Radio France Internationale. Consultado el 30 de noviembre de 2013.
  42. «SPIEGEL Reveals Cooperation Between NSA and German BND». Der Spiegel (8 de julio de 2013). Consultado el 25 de diciembre de 2013.
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  214. Barton Gellman and Ashkan Soltani. «NSA infiltrates links to Yahoo, Google data centers worldwide, Snowden documents say», The Washington Post, 30 de octubre de 2013. Consultado el 31 de octubre de 2013.
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  226. «NSA-Überwachung: Merkels Handy steht seit 2002 auf US-Abhörliste», Der Spiegel, 26 de octubre de 2012. Consultado el 26 de octubre de 2013 (en alemán).
  227. «U.S. monitored German Chancellor Angela Merkel's phone since 2002». Daily Mail (26 de octubre de 2012). Consultado el 26 de octubre de 2013.
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  238. Adam Entous and Siobhan Gorman. «U.S. Says France, Spain Aided NSA Spying», The Wall Street Journal, 29 de octubre de 2013. Consultado el 29 de octubre de 2013.
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  373. Error en la cita: Etiqueta <ref> inválida; no se ha definido el contenido de las referencias llamadas cache
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